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Diseases of the eye

Your eyes. Your life.

Let’s take an exploratory look at eye diseases such as cataracts, presbyopia, glaucoma, keratoconus, dry eyes and retinal diseases.

What is a cataract?

With age, the lens becomes opaque, allowing less and less light to pass through. The light rays that reach the retina are scattered, producing a blurred and confused image.


Refractive cataract surgery does not only consist of removing the cataract, but also of correcting existing vision problems. Using an ultrasound probe, the hardened lens is broken up and aspirated. An intraocular lens (IOL) is then inserted into the eye. The procedure does not require anesthetic injections or stitches.

Learn more about cataract surgery

What is presbyopia?

Presbyopia is an eye condition that is part of the natural aging process. It is characterized by a gradual inability of the eye to clearly distinguish close objects such as smartphones, computers, books and menus. Early signs of presbyopia include eye strain, problems seeing in low light, and difficulty focusing on small objects or small print.

Presbyopia is believed to be caused by a progressive loss of flexibility and thickening of the natural lens inside the eye. This condition is different from astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness, as these are associated with the curvature of the cornea or the length of the eyeball.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms can manifest themselves differently from one person to another. However, the following symptoms are the most common:

  • Having to hold text at arm’s length to read it
  • Blurred vision at normal reading distance
  • Headaches or fatigue when doing close work

How is presbyopia diagnosed and corrected?

Presbyopia can be detected with a comprehensive eye exam. Presbyopia is not a disease, so it cannot be cured. However, your doctor can recommend vision correction options, including glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery. He or she will determine the most appropriate option to provide you with clear and comfortable vision.

Learn more about presbyopia surgery

What is glaucoma?

Chronic glaucoma is caused by an increase in pressure inside the eye. The high pressure damages the optic nerve, resulting in gradual and permanent loss of vision.

Evaluation of the visual field: the visual field corresponds to the extent that the gaze embraces. The presence of dark areas reveals a reduced visual field. Pachymetry measures the thickness of the cornea, which plays an important role in glaucoma. HD tomography gives a detailed view of the internal structure of the optic nerve facilitating early detection of glaucoma and better follow-up.


1. Selective treatment with cold laser: this treatment is used today as a first resort. It has few side effects and can be repeated, if necessary.

2. Eye drops: these are usually used once or several times a day, on a perpetual basis.

3. Surgical treatment: filtration surgery is called trabeculectomy. A more recent procedure is to implant a tiny drain in the eye to control pressure.

Learn more about glaucoma treatment

What is keratoconus?

Keratoconus is an ocular condition that causes a deformation of the cornea. It usually begins in adolescence and progresses over the years, gradually leading to decreased vision. As keratoconus thins the cornea, it becomes deformed and more conical.


Initially, the use of rigid contact lenses can improve vision. Unfortunately, as the disease progresses, contact lenses become difficult for the patient to tolerate. As a last resort, a corneal transplant may be necessary.

Today, there is an effective treatment for keratoconus called corneal cross-linking. This procedure strengthens the cornea and slows down the progression of keratoconus, thus avoiding, or at least postponing, a corneal transplant. However, it does not correct vision.

Learn more about the treatment

Dry eye

A dry eye problem occurs when the lacrimal gland does not secrete enough tears. The eye then becomes dry and painful. Today, several tests are available to measure the quantity of tears secreted and analyze their quality. If the use of artificial tears does not correct the problem, other more advanced interventions can be performed.

Dry eyes can develop if your eyes stop producing enough tears or if the quality of the tears is diminished. Over time, it can worsen and lead to a condition called keratoconjunctivitis sicca, causing burning and grittiness in the eye, blurred vision, red eyes and swollen eyelids.
Retinal diseases

Causes of dry eyes

  • Low humidity environment
  • Age: 50 years and older
  • Menopause
  • Preservatives in eye drops
  • Contact lens wear
  • Systemic diseases such as diabetes and arthritis
  • After refractive eye surgery such as Lasik or cataract


The Canadian Dry Eye Evaluation (CEDE) questionnaire is a very useful tool for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, as it quantifies the severity of ocular surface damage.

Dry eye clinics can improve the accuracy of diagnosis by taking a tear film sample (TearLab) for analysis. Other more specific tests, such as tomography and topography, can be performed to provide more detailed information about the tear film.


1. Application of artificial tears, preferably without preservatives, as these may increase the toxicity of the eye drops.

2. Omega 3 fatty acids, in their purified triglyceride form, constitute a unique preparation with a high concentration of EPA and DHA ACIDS. It is precisely this purified form that gives it an absorption up to 70% higher absorption in the body compared to other forms commonly found in stores while avoiding undesirable effects such as fishy smell or digestion problems.

3. The application of warm compresses or eye masks, ideally combined with associated with an eyelid massage.

4. Eyelid hygiene

5. Increasing humidification by using portable humidifiers for home and office humidifiers for the home and office and, in more advanced cases, goggles specifically designed to keep moisture out of the eye.

6. Medical or surgical treatment

Learn more about dry eye treatment


Macular degeneration

It is a natural consequence of the aging process. Over time, the retinal tissues of the macula dry out, leading to the dry form of the disease. The exudative form, which is rarer, is characterized by macular hemorrhages and oozing that reduce central vision.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels on the retina. These fragile vessels break and cause multiple retinal hemorrhages. Untreated, diabetic retinopathy leads to blindness.

Tomography of the retina (OCT SCAN)

Taken with a specialized camera, cross-sectional images of your retina show your doctor what’s happening beneath the surface. This allows for early diagnosis and careful monitoring of retinal diseases.